The modern political history of Sudan is marked by military coups, genocide, and limited democratic engagement. In 1989, the democratically elected government in Khartoum was overthrown in a military coup led by Omar al-Bashir, who went on to lead the country for the next 20 years. At that time, al-Bashir’s government restricted political engagement and led a military campaign in the Darfur region, which has since been declared a genocide. Between 2003 and 2020, up to 400,000 were killed in the region, with targeted ethnic cleansing, rape, and other crimes against humanity ultimately impacting the lives of three million Darfuris. As a result of this genocide, many in the region have been displaced, and low-level violence and tension persists today.